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Democracy and the United Nations
Monday, 16 September 2013 10:32

Democracy is one of the universal and indivisible core values and principles of the United Nations. Itis based on the freely expressed will of people and closely linked to the rule of law and exercise ofhuman rights and fundamental freedomsi. Democracy, and democratic governance in particular,means that people’s human rights and fundamental freedoms are respected, promoted and fulfilled,allowing them to live with dignity. People have a say in decisions that affect their lives and can holddecision-makers to account, based on inclusive and fair rules, institutions and practices that governsocial interactions. Women are equal partners with men in private and public spheres of life anddecision-making, and all people are free from discrimination based on race, ethnicity, class, genderor any other attribute.

Democratic governance feeds into economic and social policies that areresponsive to people’s needs and aspirations, that aim at eradicating poverty and expanding thechoices that people have in their lives, and that respect the needs of future generations. In essence,democratic governance is the process of creating and sustaining an environment for inclusive andresponsive political processes and settlements.

The United Nations does not advocate for a specific model of government, but promotes democraticgovernance as a set of values and principles that should be followed for greater participation, equality,security and human development.

Democracy in international law

Although the United Nations Charter does not include the word “democracy”, the opening words of the Charter, “We the Peoples”, reflect the fundamental principle of democracy that the will of the people is the source of legitimacy of sovereign states and therefore of the United Nations as a whole. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the General Assembly in 1948, projected the concept of democracy by stating “the will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government.”ii The Declaration spells out the rights that are essential for effective political participation. Since its adoption, the Declaration has inspired constitution-making around the world and has contributed greatly to the global acceptance of democracy as a universal value.

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) lays the legal basis for the principles of democracy under international law, particularly:
-freedom of expression (Article 19);
-the right of peaceful assembly (Article 21);
-the right to freedom of association with others (Article 22);
-the right and opportunity to take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through freely chosen representatives (Article 25);
-the right to vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the electors (Article 25).

The Covenant is binding on those States that have ratified it. As of July 2012, the number of parties tothe Covenant was 167, which constitutes approximately 85 per cent of the United Nations’membership.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women stipulates that its 187 States parties (as of July 2012) shall ensure to women, on equal terms with men, the right to vote and stand for elections, and participate in public life and decision-making (Article 7). Supporting democracy around the world United Nations activities in support of democracy and governance are implemented through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Democracy Fund (UNDEF), the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), the Department of Political Affairs (DPA) and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), among others. Such activities are inseparable from the UN’s work in promoting human rights, development, and peace and security, and include:

-Assisting parliaments and decentralized local governance structures to enhance the checks and balances that allow democracy to thrive;
-Promoting human rights, the rule of law and access to justice by helping to strengthen the impartiality and effectiveness of the national human rights machinery and judicial systems;
-Ensuring freedom of expression and access to information by strengthening legislation and media capacities;
-Electoral assistance and long-term support for electoral management bodies; and• Promoting women’s participation in political and public life.

Approximately USD 1.5 billion each year is provided through UNDP to support democratic processes around the world. Since 2011, UNDP has helped strengthen 10,250 institutions (from ministries responsible for policymaking to grass-roots civil society organizations advocating for greater inclusiveness in parliaments, elections, social protection, jobs and livelihoods, and food security mechanisms),making the United Nations one of the largest providers of technical cooperation for democracy and governance globally.

Read more on: FOSTERING DEMOCRACY THROUGH ELECTIONS, DEMOCRACY AND CIVIL SOCIETY, DEMOCRACY AND HUMAN RIGHTS and WOMEN AND DEMOCRACY

Last Updated on Wednesday, 13 November 2013 08:17
 
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